Detailed Product Description:
A colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a pungent odor.
Noncombustible. This is a strong and highly corrosive acid.
Soluble in water, alcohol, and benzene. Most commonly used
for metal pickling and cleaning processes. Also a laboratory
This is Semiconductor Grade material (equivalent to Reagent
Hydrochloric acid is the solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.
It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid and has major industrial uses.
It is found naturally in gastric acid.
Historically called muriatic acid or spirits of salt, hydrochloric acid was
First produced from vitriol and common salt. During the Middle Ages, it
was used by alchemists in the quest for the philosopher's stone.
With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric
acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale
production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane.
It has numerous smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning,
production of gelatin and other food additives, descaling, and leather processing.
Of the seven common strong mineral acids in chemistry, hydrochloric acid is the
monoprotic acid least likely to undergo an interfering oxidation-reduction reaction.
It is one of the least hazardous strong acids to handle; despite its acidity, it consists
of the non-reactive and non-toxic chloride ion. Intermediate strength hydrochloric
acid solutions are quite stable upon storage, maintaining their concentrations over
time. These attributes, plus the fact that it is available as a pure reagent, mean that
hydrochloric acid makes an excellent acidifying reagent.
Hydrochloric acid is the preferred acid in titration for determining the amount of
bases. Strong acid titrants give more precise results due to a more distinct endpoint.
Azeotropic or "constant-boiling" hydrochloric acid (roughly 20.2%) can be used as
a primary standard in quantitative analysis, although its exact concentration depends
on the atmospheric pressure when it is prepared.
Hydrochloric acid is frequently used in chemical analysis to prepare ("digest")
samples for analysis. Concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolves many metals and
forms oxidized metal chlorides and hydrogen gas, and it reacts with basic
compounds such as calcium carbonate or copper(II) oxide, forming the dissolved
chlorides that can be analyzed.
One of the most important applications of hydrochloric acid is in the pickling of
steel, to remove rust or iron oxide scale from iron or steel before subsequent
processing, such as extrusion, rolling, galvanizing, and other techniques. Technical
quality HCl at typically 18% concentration is the most commonly used pickling agent
for the pickling of carbon steel grades.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid (fuming hydrochloric acid) forms acidic mists.
Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the
potential to damage respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines.
Upon mixing hydrochloric acid with common oxidizing chemicals, such as sodium
hypochlorite (bleach, NaClO) or potassium permanganate (KMnO4), the toxic gas,
chlorine, is produced.
Download the Material Safety Data Sheet for this material and understand the
precautions listed before using. Strong irritant to eyes and skin. Toxic by
inhalation and ingestion.
Click here to download copy of MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)
Hydrochloric Acid concentration is most commonly presented in weight % (w/w%),
however other terms include “Baume´” and “Molarity.”
38% HCl = 23 Baume´ = 12.39 Molar
32% HCl = 20 Baume´ = 10.17 Molar
20% HCl = 13 Baume´ = 6 Molar